Scientific Classification

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Clade Synapsida
Class Mammalia
Order Proboscidea
Family Elephantidae
Genus Mammuthus
Species M. primigenius
Scientific Name Mammuthus primigenius
woolly mammoth
Woolly Mammoth ©sciencelife.uchospitals.edu

Other Names

Elephas primigenius, Elephas mammonteus, Mammuthus boreus, Mammonteus primigenius Osborn, Elephas boreus

Woolly Mammoth Description

  • The woolly mammoth is probably the most understood of all prehistoric animals.
  • It separated from the steppe mammoth about 400,000 years ago.
  • The mammoth was nearly the size of a modern elephant.
  • Dugongs and manatees are thought to be the close relatives of mammoths.
  • They had ears smaller than those of modern elephants.
  • Woolly mammoths had thick layer of skin that kept the animal warm in extreme cold.
  • The small ears of the mammoth prevent the heat loss.
  • They could take a stride as long as 2 m (6.6 ft).
  • Adult mammoths must need 180 kg (397 lb) of food daily.

Size & Weight

Adult

(Male)

  • SHOULDER HEIGHT: 2.7 and 3.4 m (8.9 and 11.2 ft)
  • WEIGHT: 6 tonnes (6.6 short tons)
  • TUSK LENGTH: 4–2.7 m (7.9–8.9 ft)
  • TUSK WEIGHT: 45 kg (99 lb)

(Female)

  • SHOULDER HEIGHT: 6–2.9 meters (8.5–9.5 ft)
  • WEIGHT: 4 tonnes (4.4 short tons)
  • TUSK LENGTH: 5–1.8 m (4.9–5.9 ft)
  • TUSK WEIGHT: 9 kg (20 lb)

(Male and Female)

  • EAR LENGTH: 38 cm (15 in)
  • EAR WIDTH: 18–28 cm (7.1–11.0 in)
  • TRUNK: 2 meters (6.6 ft)
  • TAIL: 36 cm (14 in)
  • HAIR LENGTH: 90 cm (35 in)
  • HAIR DIAMETER: 5 mm (0.020 in)

Newborn

  • WEIGHT: 90 kilograms (200 lb)
  • EAR WIDTH: 13 cm (5.1 in)
  • TRUNK: 76 cm (2.49 ft)
woolly mammoth
Baby woolly mammoth

Subspecies

  • M. intermedius
  • M. chosaricus
  • M. p. primigenius
  • M. p. jatzkovi
  • M. p. sibiricus
  • M. p. fraasi
  • M. p. leith-adamsi
  • M. p. hydruntinus
  • M. p. astensis
  • M. p. americanus
  • M. p. compressus
  • M. p. alaskensis

Fossil Discovery

Siberia, Alaska

Habitat

Tundra steppe

Diet

Sedges, grasses, shrubs, herbaceous plants, mosses, flowering plants

Range

Eurasia, North America

Weaning Period

3 years

Lifespan

60 years

Predators

Wolves, felines, cave hyenas

Behavior

Social

Conservation Status

Extinct

A